"The consensus group recommends the following sleep hours:
"In general, sleep deprivation is a problem among children in America. According to NSF's 2004 Sleep in America poll, more than two-thirds of children experience one or more sleep problems at least a few nights a week. For children with ADHD, poor sleep (too little sleep or symptoms of sleep disorders) may profoundly impact ADHD symptoms. In fact, one study found that treating sleep problems may be enough to eliminate attention and hyperactivity issues for some children..." (See article)
1. Some pediatricians and lactation specialists assert that traces of gas-producing foods, such as cruciferous vegetables and legumes, can be passed from mother to baby. Other experts also warn against excessive acidity in the maternal diet. Dairy products in mother’s diet can also lead to “intolerances” in baby... (See article)
2. Air bubbles can also be taken in through baby’s mouth. Most commonly, it is a result of the suction created during nursing. For this reason, it is important to burp every 3 to 5 minutes during feedings or between breasts. If your baby is bottle-fed, make certain that the bottle’s nipple is the right size. If the nipple is too big, it will cause your baby to eat too fast. If it’s too small, it will cause your baby to gulp air... (See article)
3. Another possible reason for infant gassiness is hyper-lactation syndrome. When a mother has a very abundant milk supply, she may produce a larger amount of foremilk. Foremilk is higher in water content, higher in lactose and usually delivered with greater force during letdown. In excess, foremilk can make baby’s stomach cramp, creating more fussiness. A baby that gulps the quickly flowing milk also tends to take in more air, thereby getting gassier. Because the baby may not be getting enough of the rich hind milk, he or she tends to want to eat more often, which perpetuates the problem.... (See article)
4. Over-stimulation can also lead to increased gassiness. (See article)
1. Sleep promotes growth. You've probably had mornings where you've sworn your baby got bigger overnight, and you'd be right. "Growth hormone is primarily secreted during deep sleep," says Judith Owens, M.D., director of sleep medicine at Children's National Medical Center, in Washington, D.C... (See full article)
2. Sleep helps the heart.
Experts are learning more about how sleep protects kids from vascular damage due to circulating stress hormones and arterial wall -- damaging cholesterol. "Children with sleep disorders have excessive brain arousal during sleep, which can trigger the fight-or-flight response hundreds of times each night," says Jeffrey Durmer, M.D., Ph.D., a sleep specialist and researcher in Atlanta. "Their blood glucose and cortisol remain elevated at night. Both are linked to higher levels of diabetes, obesity, and even heart disease." (See full article)
3. Sleep affects weight.
There's increasing evidence that getting too little sleep causes kids to become overweight, starting in infancy. One study from Penn State Children's Hospital has shown that when parents are coached on the difference between hunger and other distress cues and begin to soothe without feeding -- using such techniques as swaddling and swinging -- babies are more likely to be sound sleepers, and less likely to be overweight. Better yet? This coaching can begin when babies are 2 weeks old..." (See full article)
4. Sleep helps beat germs.
5. Sleep reduces injury risk.
6. Sleep increases kids' attention span.
7. Sleep boosts learning. (See full article)
"Results indicate that the establishment of a nightly bedtime routine produced significant reductions in problematic sleep behaviors for infants and toddlers. Improvements were seen in latency and sleep onset and in the number and duration of night wakings. Toddlers were less likely to call out to their parents or get out of their crib/bed during the night. Sleep continuity increased and there was a significant decrease in the number of mothers who rated their child's sleep as problematic. Maternal mood also significantly improved...
"There is no question that maternal mood and children's sleep impact one another. The better a child sleeps and the easier bedtime is, the better a mother's mood is going to be," said Mindell. "In addition, a mom who is not feeling tense, depressed, and fatigued is going to be calmer at bedtime, which will help a child settle down to sleep."
Research shows that daily routines in general lead to predictable and less stressful environments for young children and are related to parenting competence, improved daytime behaviors and lower maternal mental distress.
Authors of the [bedtime routine] study were surprised by the fact that sleep during the night improved, with a decrease in the number and duration of wakings and improved sleep consolidation. Sleep may have improved because the use of a routine may have decreased arousal level, resulting in improved sleep throughout the night. "
"When Howard’s father placed a drop of her breast milk on a slide and viewed it under the microscope, the entire family was amazed with what they saw—the liquid almost looked like it was alive. She later placed the video online for others to see, and it’s been viewed more than one million times already.
“You guys… this is SO COOL!!!!!!!!,” she said. “This is the living liquid gold we call breast milk in motion!!!!” The bubble-like shapes in her video are molecules of water and fat, along with white blood cells.
The video becomes even cooler when you consider all of the things present in breast milk that we can’t see in this sample, including: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Vitamins and minerals, Amino acids, Antibodies, and Enzymes.
Howard decided to investigate a little further, mixing up a small amount of formula so she could see what it looked like under the microscope, as well. The difference was definitely noticeable, as the formula sample looked with more dull with none of the large fat molecules and white blood cells that the breast milk sample had.
So, does this mean that breast milk and formula contain vastly different things just because they look so different next to each other? We obviously wouldn’t expect babyformula to contain white blood cells that miraculously appear when our babies are sick, but is it pretty much the same in most other aspects?
In some ways, the answer is “yes.” Formula does contain the essentials like fats and carbohydrates but they’re often far from natural—carbohydrates in formula might include corn maltodextrin, while fats might include palm or soybeans oils.
For most parents, these types of ingredients are far from ideal, but the trade-off comes in the form of convenience. Ultimately, baby formula is designed to give your kids everything they need, and they can get it from anyone at any time." (See full Article)
"It often works well to offer the solids about an hour after you nurse. If nursing has come before the solids you can continue feeding your baby the solids until she shows signs of fullness; i.e. turning her head, closing her mouth, batting at the spoon, wanting down, spitting the food out, etc. (trying to feed past this point is overfeeding). Most babies will balance their milk intake with their solid food intake well if you feed in this way.
What we’re aiming for during the first year is to have solids complementing breastmilk, not replacing it. This means that when solids are introduced the breastfeeding pattern is not interrupted at all, but baby is fed solids in slowly increasing amounts as his appetite increases. Baby will be getting about the same amount of breastmilk as he gets older, with increasing amounts of solids on top of that.
I think the main point in the matter is maintaining breastmilk as baby’s main source of nutrition throughout the first year. This is important both to baby’s good nutrition and good health. The nutrients in breastmilk are particularly important for growth and development during baby’s first year. In addition, some (but certainly not all) of the health benefits of breastfeeding are directly related to the degree of exclusivity of breastfeeding (the greater the percentage of baby’s diet made up of breastmilk, the greater the health benefit).
Nursing before (rather than after) the solids is a good way to help keep the transition to solids proceeding slowly so that mom’s milk supply is maintained and baby gets the breast milk that he needs." (see full article)
"Determining the risks posed by insufficient sleep is complicated. Medical conditions are slow to develop and have multiple risk factors connected to them. What we do know is that sleeping fewer than about eight hours per night on a regular basis seems to increase the risk of developing a number of medical conditions. (Obesity, diabetes, hypertension, lowered immune function, frequent illnesses, and cardiovascular disease) The study results show that reducing sleep by just two or three hours per night can have dramatic health consequences.
While sleeping well is no guarantee of good health, it does help to maintain many vital functions. One of the most important of these functions may be to provide cells and tissues with the opportunity to recover from the wear and tear of daily life. Major restorative functions in the body such as tissue repair, muscle growth, and protein synthesis occur almost exclusively during sleep.
Sleep experts say there is ample evidence that shows that when people get the sleep they need, they will not only feel better, but will also increase their odds of living healthier, more productive lives.
Sleep and mood are closely connected; poor or inadequate sleep can cause irritability and stress, while healthy sleep can enhance well-being. Chronic insomnia may increase the risk of developing a mood disorder, such as anxiety or depression.
Even if you do not have underlying sleep problems, taking steps to ensure adequate sleep will lead to improved mood and well-being. Sheila, a Boston district attorney and mother, became sleep deprived due to the conflicting demands of a full-time job and caring for her young children. She began to feel cranky, irritable, and uncharacteristically depressed. When she got both of her children on a consistent sleep schedule, she herself started sleeping an average of seven to eight hours a night and her mood improved considerably." (see full article)